- Below are audio lectures to which students may listen in preparation for exams.
unit 01; Ch. 12 + 13
What were the various causes of the population decline in the early fourteenth century?
What were the causes and effects of the Hundred Years’ War?
How did the Babylonian Captivity weaken the power of the church?
What were the reasons for the French and the English peasant revolts in the 14th century?
Why did powerful city states emerge in Italy in the 14th century?
What is humanism?
In what ways did life for upper-class women change during the Renaissance?
Describe Christian humanism?
What devices did Henry VII and Charles VII use to strengthen the monarchy?
unit 02; ch. 14 + 15
In what ways did the Catholic Church show signs of decay and vitality in the 16th century?
What were Luther’s four theological truths, as delineated in the Confession of Augsburg?
What were the causes of the English Reformation?
What reforms did leaders of the Catholic Church make at the Council of Trent .
Was the French civil war from 1559 to 1589 chiefly a religious or a political event? Explain.
What were the political, religious, and economic consequences of the 30 Years War?
How did exploration impact both European and Native American culture?
How did the status of women change in the 16th and 17th centuries?
What were the themes of major literary masterpieces in the 17th century?
unit 03; ch. 16 + 17
Analyze the absolutist policies of Louis XIV and their impact on the French state.
What were the immediate and long-range causes of the English Civil War of 1642-1649?
Why did conflict b/w king + nobles not result in gains for common men in Eastern Europe?
Explain the development of Prussia as a militaristic state in Europe?
What role did Peter I play in the rise of absolutism?
What was the relationship between baroque architecture and European absolutism?
unit 04; ch. 18 - 20
Discuss the origins of the scientific revolution.
What were the central concepts of the Enlightenment and who were their advocates?
In what ways did women impact the Enlightenment?
Why did the modern agricultural revolution originate?
List the various causes of Europe’s population growth in the 18th century.
What were the advantages of the putting-out system for both merchant and worker?
How was mercantilism the cause of war + economic growth?
Describe the typical preindustrial European family.
How and why did life expectancy improve in the 18th century?
What were the differences in the diets between the rich and the poor in the 18th century?
Define pietism, and describe how the life and works of John Wesley reflected it.
unit 05; ch. 21 + 23
Define the ideas of liberty and equality, which were central to classical liberalism.
What influences did the American Revolution have on European nations?
What role did the poor Parisian women play in the initial revolution?
Why did the revolution devolve into a Reign of Terror?
Was Napoleon a liberator or a tyrant? Explain.
Why did the leaders of the Congress of Vienna regard liberalism as dangerous?
How was nationalism an expression of liberal ideals?
How did romantics rebel against society in their art?
What were the causes and the consequences of the Greek revolution of 1821-1832?
What were the goals of the revolution in France in 1848? Why did they elect Louis Napoleon?
unit 06; Ch. 22 + 24
What impact did the railroad have on the factory system, rural workers, + values in society?
What disadvantages + advantages did countries that industrialized after Great Britain have?
Did standards of living, diet, + working conditions improve (1790-1850) for working classes?
What contributions did Chadwick, Hausmann, Pasteur, Koch, + Lister make to urban society?
What did Marx mean when he claimed that industrialization would polarize the rich + poor?
Were women better off economically and socially by the end of the 19th?
In what practical ways did science transform life for Europeans in the 19th century?
unit 07; ch. 25 + 26
What steps were taken under Napoleon III take to strengthen France in the mid 19th cen?
What steps did the Prussian + Italian governments take toward unification in the 19th cen?
What were the causes of the Crimean War? Why was it a turning point in Russian history?
What was Bismarck’s relationship after 1871 with the Catholic Church, liberals, and socialists?
Does the Qing Dynasty in China represent a traditionalist response to imperialism?
What distinguished the “new imperialism” from earlier forms of European expansion?
What was the Meiji Restoration in Japan? Why was it a turning point in Japanese history?
unit 08; Ch. 27 - 29
How did Bismarck attempt to maintain peace in Europe in the late 19th century?
What impact did World War I have on organized labor? On women in society?
What were the reasons for the Russian Revolution in March 1917?
Compare and contrast the social revolutions in Russia and Germany in 1917-1918.
Why did thinkers revolt against the idea of progress and the rational human mind?
Describe the political impact of radio and film in the 1920s.
What part did the United States play in European economics and politics in the mid 1920s?
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
What are the characteristics of modern totalitarianism?
How successful were Stalin’s five-year plans for the industry and agriculture in Soviet Russia?
What were the circumstances under which Mussolini rose to power in Italy?
Why did Hitler acquire such mass appeal? Did he improve German life?
What was Hitler’s foreign and military policy up to 1938?
unit 09; ch. 30 + 31
Why was the Yalta conference important in shaping postwar Europe?
Was a political or economic approach toward European recovery more successful? Explain.
Explain Khrushchev’s fall from power and the beginning of re-Stalinization in 1964?
Why did science become ‘Big Science’ in the postwar era?
What were the causes and outcome of European student rebellions in the late 1960s?
Discuss the origins, objectives, and outcome of the Polish Solidarity movement.
What were the goals and methods of the Gorbachev administration?
Why have some people opposed the European Union’s move toward economic unity?
Why has Europe experienced massive immigration in recent years?